Cornwall in the Bronze Age

Bronze Age cultures began to appear in Cornwall around 2200 BC with new ideas spreading from the Continent to the existing population, but the changes were gradual not sudden and stone tools continued to be used for centuries after the first copper then bronze tools appeared.

It may be that the biggest cause of this change came from Breton warriors and tin merchants then resident in Brittany but in regular contact with Cornwall. Cornish tin and copper began to be extracted from the ground by tin-streaming and open-cast mining. The Cornish tin-trade must have started at this time with the shipment of the smelted ores to Brittany, and from there overland and by river to the Mediter¬ranean.

Bronze, the alloy of tin and copper, slowly became the standard metal for weapons and tools. Skilled workers also made beautiful jewellery and decorative ware, even of Cornish and Welsh gold, and these objects typify the bronze age culture of south west Britain that has been called the Wessex culture.

Between 2200BC and 1400BC these people built, erected and used stone circles, menhirs (standing stones), stone alignments and holed stones and round barrows, which had originated amongst the so called Beaker people at the point when the change from Neolithic to Copper/bronze was starting to happen.

Bronze Age sites like these are found all over Cornwall, especially on Bodmin Moor and in Penwith. Stone circles and standing stones are evidence partly of religious beliefs, possibly of an understanding of the rudiments of astronomy, especially the movements of the sun and moon, and certainly speak of an increasingly sophisticated and well-organised society that now, because of farming, had the time to devote to tasks that were not directly related to survival.

For these Bronze Age cultures cremation was the usual burial practice, and more and more sophisticated type of pottery including collared urns and food vessels were in daily use and are regular finds by archaeologists of this period in Cornwall.

By 1400 BC many archaeologists believe that, as the climate deteriorated, so a social decline had set in. Stone circles and other ceremonial sites were abandoned, almost as if the old gods had let society down. Certainly, the quality of craftsmanship got worse as the relatively sophisticated pottery of the Early Bronze Age was replaced inferior products, including the Cornish Trevisker ware.

There have been very few finds of bronze age settlements in Cornwall that date from before 1500 BC. However, many of the round house settlements and field systems found on Bodmin Moor and in West Penwith date from the Later Bronze Age. The people who lived in such places were well organised subsistence farmers who kept animals, grew crops, practised metalworking and lived in villages near to or surrounded by their fields.

Towards the “end” of the Bronze Age, around 1000BC, there was a sudden burst of energy in metalcraft and designs, including more sophisticated types of spearheads.
In addition, some early hill forts, usually of univallate (a single bank and ditch) type were already being built. One of these may well be Castle an Dinas, owned by Cornwall Heritage Trust. Recent survey work shows a Bronze Age use of the hill (at least one barrow) and the suggestion that the Iron Age ramparts were built to augment an earlier bank and ditch system.

 

History of Cornwall


 

 

Neolithic Cornwall

Neolithic Cornwall

The upland areas of Cornwall were the parts first open to settlement as the vegetation required little in the way of clearance: they were perhaps first occupied in Neolithic times.

Hurler Stone Circles

Cornwall in the Bronze Age

Bronze Age cultures began to appear in Cornwall around 2200 BC with new ideas spreading from the Continent to the existing population, but the changes were gradual not sudden and stone tools continued to be used...

Cornwall in the Iron Age

Cornwall in the Iron Age

New, stronger iron ploughs and axes meant that farming improved. Cornwall contains many archaeological remains from this time: small villages with field systems around them, hillforts and cliff castles that...

Roman Cornwall

Roman sites and finds in Cornwall are few and far-between. In Cornwall, the first impact of the Roman domination of north-west Europe must have been felt around 56BC...

 

 

Cornwall 410 - 1066

Cornwall 410 - 1066

After the Roman withdrawal from Great Britain, Saxons and other peoples were able to conquer and settle most of the east of the island. But Cornwall remained under the rule of local Romano-British and Celtic elites...

Mediaeval Cornwall 1066-1485

Mediaeval Cornwall

 

With the arrival of the Normans to the British mainland in 1066, the River Tamar became the agreed border. There was also a general acceptance that Cornwall had a separate identity to the rest of England...

 

Sancreed Beacon

Early Modern Cornwall 1485

During this period English rulers sought to establish firmer control over the furthermost parts of Britain - Scotland and Ireland especially but this trend also affected Cornwall. Here the loyalty of many gentry, particularly in East Cornwall...

Cornwall & The Civil War 1642

Cornwall & The Civil War 1642

The Civil Wars of the mid seventeenth century were a result of political, constitutional, religious and social changes and disagreements, which culminated in a struggle for control of the country between King and Parliament...

 

treffry viaduct

Industry in Cornwall

The industrial revolution had a huge impact on Cornwall and the county at this time was amongst the most industrialized part of the UK, if not the world...

History of Transport

History of Transport

The development of Cornwall’s roads was hugely affected by the county’s unique topography and landscape. Cornwall’s rivers run north-south, so all traffic along the peninsular...